What Are the Psychological Strategies to Overcome Choking in Professional Golfers?

March 10, 2024

In the high-stakes world of professional sports, performance under pressure can make or break a career. One sport where this is especially evident is professional golf. Golfers often face enormous pressure, dealing with high expectations, intense competition, and the scrutiny of spectators and media. The mental stress can lead to a phenomenon known as "choking," where heightened anxiety leads to a dramatic drop in performance. This article delves into the psychology of choking and explores strategies that professional golfers can use to overcome this debilitating condition.

Understanding Choking: A Psychological Perspective

Before delving into the strategies to overcome choking, it’s important to understand what it is and why it happens. Psychologists define choking as the experience of performing below optimal levels due to stress and pressure. The term stems from the idea that the pressure is so high that it feels as though it’s choking you, preventing you from performing your best.

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When you’re under pressure, your brain behaves differently. An area called the prefrontal cortex, responsible for decision-making and problem-solving, becomes highly active. This may sound like a good thing, but it can backfire when the pressure is high. The heightened activity can lead to overthinking, which interferes with your ability to carry out tasks you usually do instinctively.

According to Sian Beilock, a leading researcher in the field of performance psychology, when people are under intense pressure, they use more of their brain, not less. This increase in brain activity can interfere with performance, particularly in tasks that require a lot of memory, like math, or precision, like golf.

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The Role of Anxiety and Stress in Choking

Stress and anxiety can wreak havoc on a golfer’s performance. They can trigger a cascade of physiological responses, from an elevated heart rate to a flood of stress hormones, that can make it difficult to focus and execute precise movements.

Anxiety, in particular, can cause a golfer to lose focus on the task at hand and become preoccupied with the potential consequences of failure. This can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy where the fear of choking actually causes it to happen. Sports psychologists often refer to this phenomenon as ‘performance anxiety’.

One way to understand how anxiety leads to choking is through the concept of attentional control theory. According to this theory, anxiety impairs the brain’s executive function, which controls what we pay attention to. When we’re anxious, we’re more likely to pay attention to distracting information, making us less efficient at performing tasks.

Coping Strategies: Training the Brain for Better Performance

Knowing that high-pressure situations cause changes in the brain, psychologists have developed strategies to help athletes, including golfers, manage their anxiety and prevent choking.

One such strategy is mindfulness training. Mindfulness involves focusing on the present moment, without judgment. By practicing mindfulness, golfers can train their brains to stay focused on the task at hand, rather than worrying about potential outcomes. This can help them maintain their performance even under high stress.

Another strategy is cognitive reappraisal, a technique that involves changing the way you think about a stressful situation. Instead of seeing a high-pressure situation as threatening, you can learn to view it as a challenge or opportunity. This shift in perspective can reduce stress and improve performance.

Employing Mental Rehearsal and Simulation Training

Mental rehearsal is another effective strategy for overcoming performance anxiety. Also known as visualization, this technique involves vividly imagining the task you’re about to perform. For golfers, this could mean visualizing the perfect swing or the ball landing exactly where they want it to. Studies have found that mental rehearsal can improve actual performance, possibly because it helps to build muscle memory and confidence.

Simulation training is also beneficial. It involves practicing in conditions that mimic the high-pressure situations golfers face during a tournament. The goal is to get golfers accustomed to the pressures they’ll face, reducing their anxiety and increasing their performance when it really counts.

Remember, the brain is a powerful tool, and with the right strategies, golfers can learn to harness its power to overcome choking and enhance their performance. This not only applies to golf but extends to other high-pressure situations, showing the potential for these strategies to transform our relationship with stress and pressure.

Incorporating Sports Psychology: From Theory to Practice

The study of sports psychology has been instrumental in providing insights into the mental roadblocks athletes face and proposing strategies to overcome them. A key aspect of sports psychology is understanding the role of working memory in task execution. Working memory is the cognitive system that holds information active for a short period, allowing for the manipulation and updating of this information. It is critical for decision-making processes and is heavily affected by high-pressure situations, thus directly influencing performance.

In high stakes environments, athletes may experience what is termed as ‘explicit monitoring’. Explicit monitoring is the process where an athlete consciously controls aspects of their performance that would otherwise be automatic. This happens when the pressure is so intense that it prompts the athlete to focus too much on their performance, leading to a disruption in their automatic processes.

A common belief in sports psychology is the concept of loss aversion. This theory suggests that the fear of losing something (poor performance or the match) is a larger motivator than the desire to gain something (improving performance or winning the match). This mindset can lead to an increased level of stress and choke pressure in athletes.

Sport psychology proposes different ways for athletes to gain a mental edge. For golfers, one such approach could be to focus on the task rather than the outcome. By shifting the attention from the high-pressure situation to the specific actions needed to perform well, golfers can effectively manage their working memory and reduce explicit monitoring.

The Power of the Prefrontal Cortex and the Nervous System

The prefrontal cortex and the nervous system play a significant role in how an athlete responds to high pressure. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for decision making and regulating social behaviour, while the nervous system coordinates actions and sensory information.

In high pressure situations, these systems can go into overdrive, leading to the golfer overthinking each swing, putt, or decision on the golf course. To overcome this, golfers can employ techniques that help control the nervous system, such as deep breathing exercises and progressive muscle relaxation. These can help reduce tension, slow the heart rate, and maintain a sense of calm.

Furthermore, reframing the situation can help golfers manage the social pressure associated with high stakes competition. By seeing the crowd as a source of support rather than a source of stress, golfers can transform the pressure into positive energy.


In the world of professional golf, choking under pressure can be a career-altering obstacle. However, by understanding the underlying psychological mechanisms, such as working memory, explicit monitoring, and the role of the prefrontal cortex and nervous system, golfers can develop effective strategies to overcome this hurdle.

Practices like mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal, mental rehearsal, and simulation training, derived from the field of sports psychology, can be instrumental in helping golfers maintain their mental edge during high-pressure situations. Moreover, by embracing the pressure rather than fearing it, golfers can learn to see high stakes tournaments as opportunities rather than threats.

Ultimately, overcoming choking is a mental game. It requires understanding and strategically managing one’s thoughts, emotions, and behaviours in the face of enormous pressure. With the right tools and techniques, golfers can conquer this challenge and perform at their best, even when the stakes are at their highest. As we delve deeper into the world of sports psychology, it is exciting to envision how we can further improve performance and transform our relationship with stress and pressure.